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The Asymmetric Janus Parallelism in Daniel 11:35

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antichrist

 

Since the time of Jerome, some Christian interpreters have seen an “antichrist” figure in vv. 36–45 (cf. Lucas, 292). The interpretation is based on Daniel’s description of the “little horn” (7:8), “another horn” (8:9), and “the ruler who will come” (9:26) in his previous visions, as well as NT teaching concerning “the man of lawlessness” (2 Th 2:3–12), the “antichrist” (1 Jn 2:18), and the “beast” (Rev 11–20; cf. Miller, 306)…

The chief problem in assigning an eschatological meaning to the passage is that, unlike the earlier portion of the chapter (e.g., vv. 2, 7, 20–21), there is no clear grammatical marker or transitional language indicating a shift of subject between v. 35 and v. 36.-Hill, A. E. (2008). Daniel. In T. Longman III & D. E. Garland (Eds.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Daniel–Malachi (Revised Edition) (Vol. 8, p. 199). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Scholars have overlooked the grammatical marker indicating Daniel is telescoping the “purging event” to both Antiochus and Antichrist, using a double entendre classified as a “Janus Parallelism”:

Janus Parallelism. This type of parallelism hinges on the use of a single word with two different meanings, one of which forms a parallel with what precedes and the other with what follows. Thus, by virtue of a double entendre, the parallelism faces in both directions. – Berlin, A. Parallelism. In (D. N. Freedman, Ed.)The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 5:155

And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end (07093 קֵץ): because it is yet for a time appointed (04150 מוֹעֵד ). (Dan. 11:35) KJV

Daniel uses “Time of the end” (07093 קֵץ) two ways, to the end time (Dan. 8:17, 19; 11:35, 40; 12:4, 9) and to end of a specific time (Dan. 11:27; 12:6, 13). Had Daniel wanted to speak only of the purging under Antiochus he could have ended the text there.

Instead, the final phrase pushes this “time of the end” forward “because it is yet for a time appointed”. That indicates the double entendre, the dual application to Antiochus and Antichrist in a “telescoped” prophecy having elements fulfilled in both (Dan. 7:6-27; 8:8-26). [Dan. 7:23-25 is an end time “leopard” Grecian version of the Roman Empire (Rev. 13:2).]

This is collaborated when the end time (07093 קֵץ) in Daniel 11:40; 12:4 applies to the end, and in Daniel 12:7 the ” time appointed (04150 מוֹעֵד ) ” is expressly put at midweek “time (04150), times (04150), and a half”. Then in Daniel 12:9 the interpreting angel says these words are sealed “till the time of the end” (7093) and then in Daniel 12:13 we again see the dual application of “time of the end” (7093), to Daniel and then the end time:

But go thou thy way till the end (07093) be: for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end (07093) of the days. (Dan. 12:13) KJV

This conclusion is not contradicted by the similar phraseology in Daniel 11:27, for that locates an end to this time of prosperity by deceit in the appointed time during the reign of these kings (Dan. 11:29). Clearly, it is not a double entendre, therefore irrelevant and immaterial to a Janus Parallelism:

27 And both these kings’ hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end (07093 קֵץ) shall be at the time appointed (04150 מוֹעֵד ).
28 Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.
29 At the time appointed (04150 מוֹעֵד) he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.
30 For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant. (Dan. 11:27-30) KJV