The Nephilim: Satan’s Fallen Angels
Who were the Nephilim? As contemporaneous equals with the “Sons of God”, who were on earth before the sons of God took human wives (Gen. 6:4), they cannot be their hybrid human-angel children:
1 When human beings began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them,
2 the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose.
3 Then the LORD said, “My Spirit will not contend with humans forever, for they are mortal; their days will be a hundred and twenty years.”
4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days– and also afterward— when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown. (Gen. 6:1-4 NIV)
In the Old Testament “Sons of God” refers to Angels (Gen. 6:2, 4; Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7). Both Peter and Jude confirm they are angels when writing about this event in the days of Noah, when “angels …left their own abode…having given themselves to sexual immorality” (2 Pet. 2:4-5; Jude 1:6-7).
Could the Nephilim (fallen ones) be “Giants” as reported by cowardly spies in Numbers 13:33:
32 And they gave the children of Israel a bad report of the land which they had spied out, saying, “The land through which we have gone as spies is a land that devours its inhabitants, and all the people whom we saw in it are men [0582 אֱנוֹשׁ ‘enowsh] of great stature.
33 “There we saw the giants [05303 נְפִיל nephiyl] (the descendants of Anak came from the giants [05303 נְפִיל nephiyl]); and we were like grasshoppers in our own sight, and so we were in their sight.” (Num. 13:32-33 NKJ)
The use of the term Nephilim seems to be deliberately provocative of fear, a term not unlike the concept of bogeymen and hobgoblins. The exaggeration of the faithless [spies] led them to their final folly: “We seemed like grasshoppers in our own eyes, and we looked the same to them.”-Allen, R. B. (1990). Numbers. In F. E. Gaebelein (Ed.), The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers (Vol. 2, p. 812). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House.
Although the Septuagint and other translations (KJV &c.) consider this proof Nephilim were human giants, that does not follow from the text as “Nephilim” appears in an “exaggeration meant to persuade Israelites from fighting them”.
Scripture clarifies “(the descendants of Anak came from the Nephilim [05303 נְפִיל nephiyl])”. Therefore, they cannot be full Nephilim, they descended from Nephilim-human parents. As the Nephilim and their offspring breathing on dry land died in the flood—Genesis repeats all died twice for emphasis (Gen. 7:21-23), some of the survivors on the Ark must have had traces of Nephilim DNA in their lineage for remnants of Nephilim DNA to survive the flood. The wording of Genesis 6:9 implies uncorrupted human DNA had become rare. It does not follow the Nephilim were also giants, giantism might be unique to hybrid DNA.
That the spies did not see actual Nephilim is confirmed by other scriptures. Arba is the father of Anak (Num. 13:33. Josh. 15:11) and he is said to be a “man” (0120 אָדָם ‘adam), not Nephilim (Josh. 14:15). While the Anakim were giant in size (Num. 13:33. Deut. 2:10, 20-21; 9:2), and so the spies call them “Nephilim”, its in the context of an exaggeration, not literally. Caleb defeated three of these sons of Anak (Josh. 15:14), a feat not likely with actual Nephilim. The brief mention of his exploit seems to allude to the exaggeration of the spies, just how wrong they were to be afraid. Although giants, the terrifying aspect of Nephilim that made them into “bogeymen” doesn’t appear in these texts, confirming they weren’t Nephilim. Consistent with these giants being descendants having a remnant of Nephilim DNA, Joshua 13:12 implies God ordained all so corrupted be destroyed from the earth.
“Once you eliminate the impossible”, the Nephilim are not angelic “sons of God”, not their children, not human giants, “whatever remains…must be the truth”. The Nephilim (“fallen ones) were angelic “sons of the Devil.” Only Angels can be angelic equals (Job 1:6 comp. Dan. 10:20; 8:10). Their juxtaposition in Genesis 6:4 supports this identification.
That Nephilim were fallen angels is confirmed in the book of Revelation, where the antediluvian war against the woman’s seed (Gen. 3:15) is revealed.
Satan cast down to the earth the third of heaven’s angels that had joined his rebellion against God:
3 And another sign appeared in heaven: behold, a great, fiery red dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and seven diadems on his heads.
4 His tail drew a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth. And the dragon stood before the woman who was ready to give birth, to devour her Child as soon as it was born. (Rev. 12:3-4 NKJ)
This telescoped prophecy transcends human history; it begins in heaven. Satan cast down to the earth a third of heaven’s angels, first. In the End Time, all fallen angels still in heaven will be cast out by Michael and His angels (Rev. 12:7-12). In Antediluvian times, God countered by sending the Watchers (Dan. 4:17) His “sons of God” to counter the evil influence of Satan’s angels, the Nephilim. 
That didn’t end well (Gen. 6:2-4) and its clear God was highly offended by man’s betrayal (Gen. 6:5-7).
The Nephilim are mentioned first in Genesis 6:4 because they were instrumental in the fall of “the “sons of God”. Angels, fallen or not are physical beings . They conspired with men to seduce the “sons of God” with their beautiful daughters. Constant porn before the eyes of the Watchers. From Genesis 6:3 we can infer the motives of human conspirators, they wanted a “work around” God’s forbidding they eat of the tree of life and live forever (Gen. 3:22-24). Men believed the hybrid Elohim-human offspring would be immortal.  God faults man for the conspiracy, because Man has dominion over the earth (Gen. 1:26, 28), not Satan. Satan can do nothing without a human collaborator.
Would Antediluvian scientists have the knowledge to manipulate DNA? Our present state of technology springs from 500 years of scientific progress, where scientists must be retrained every generation. Antediluvian lifespan was hundreds of years long and they had 1,656 years to exceed our achievements.
After the Fall of Adam and Eve human population exploded.  In Genesis 6:1-4 we learn two competing groups “the sons of God” and Nephilim (Gen. 6:4) battled each other for the hearts and minds of men during Satan’s war against the “seed” of the woman (Gen. 3:15), the birth of Christ (Rev. 12:1-4). From the presence of carnivorous dinosaurs in the fossil record we can infer corrupting the genome of life played a role in this warfare. God created herbivores (Gen. 1:29), but only 1,656 years later these were corrupted into violent carnivorous dinosaurs we today see frozen in time in the fossil record created by the Flood. As such a rapid mutation doesn’t occur naturally today, it didn’t in antediluvian times. Such rapid change requires genetic manipulation occurred, and we can safely rule out God as the culprit. He cites the violence now found in His creatures as the reason for destroying all life on dry land (Gen. 6:11-13). It follows this is why the abominations God hated, monstrous versions of the herbivores He created, were kept off Noah’s Ark (Gen. 6:11-13, 19-20; 7:21-23 cf. Gen. 6:19-20) . When Genesis 6:9 says Noah is without defect “among his contemporaries”, that implies it wasn’t true for many in his generation. 
Satan would win the war of the seeds if he could defile the human genome with the DNA of angels. Then the “image of God” in man is destroyed and the incarnation-ransom sacrifice of the Lamb without blemish to reconcile all to God would be impossible (Rom. 5:10. Eph. 2:16. Col. 120-21). 
Evidently the Nephilim were prohibited from engaging humans physically after the flood, only God’s angels are shown doing so (Gen. 18:2-8; 19:1-3). That prohibition would remain in effect until the End-Time lifting of God’s restraint on Satanic energy (2 Th. 7-12. Rev. 12:7-12). Then our Lord’s words about the “days of Noah” may very well imply “strange marriages” between Nephilim and humans will happen again, when they return disguised as Extraterrestrials (Lk. 17:26-27).
Confirming DNA manipulation is part of Satan’s plan, modern day satanically generated UFO phenomena features alien DNA manipulation, of men and animals. It follows this is purposeful, Satan is seeding the idea because it plays a major part in the end time delusion. As noted elsewhere, I believe Satan has already given the gist of his end time strategy to the UFO Raelian cult. Particularly the idea man was created by “Elohim-Designers”, and that Infinite Almighty God does not exist. One important caveat, Raelism has Satan and Yahweh co-operating extraterrestrials (Intelligent Design, Claude Maurice Marcel Vorilhon). But the story could be modified easily where YHWH becomes the leader of enemy extraterrestrials who are trying to prevent mankind’s “evolution.” I chose to follow that assumption on this site.
A third of heaven’s angels joined the Dragon’s rebellion convincing mankind to join the rebellion against God (Rev. 12:4). These “the Fallen Ones” are called the “Nephilim” in Genesis 6:4.
Some consider the book of Enoch a reliable source of information about these things. I do not. I consider it satanic disinformation where truth is deployed to make falsehood believable. Its certain an antichrist spirit was speaking to Enoch. The spirit in effect denies Jesus Christ came in the flesh (1 John 4:1-3) because it calls Enoch “the Son of Man” with whom the righteous will dwell eternally (1Enoch 71:14, 16). See End Note 
The Nephilim will return disguised as Extraterrestrials with Satan as their Dragon Commander (Rev. 12:7-9). The “ancient alien theory” is the satanically energized strong delusion (2Th. 2:11-12; Rev. 16:13-14) The “flying frog” demons out of their mouths “the BIG LIE” Satan and his angels are extraterrestrials. They will cause the Great Revolt (2Th. 2:3-4) against even the definition of God, opposing it while exalting the hybrid 666 Beast as above “the Elohim extraterrestrial gods” hoping to change times and law of civil society (2Th. 2:4. Dan. 7:8, 25; 8:10-11, 24; 11:36-39). The hybrid Satan-human is “Satan’s seed” (Gen. 3:15) “The Beast”(Rev. 16:13) “the Antichrist” (1Jn. 2:18; 22-23; 4:3. 2Jn. 1:7) whose human name will be “Adonikam” (Rev. 13:18; Ezr. 2:13). On this see: The 666 Riddle solved
Satan craftily spoke through a serpent corrupting Eve from the simplicity of God’s truth beguiling her to eat (2Cor. 11:3) from the tree of knowledge (Gen. 3:1-6). Satan is called a cedar tree (Ezek. 31:8-11), whom the fallen angels followed (Ezek. 31:6). Christ “the ruler of the nations” and His angels will cast them into “the pit” (Ezek. 31:11-14). In Ezekiel 31:3 this “cedar” is called Assyria, his “seed” then would be “the Assyrian” (Mic. 5:5-6; Isa. 14:25-27), the apostate Jewish Christian named Adonikam (King of the North) Satan’s seed (Gen. 3:15).
Occult UFO phenomena and rise of contactee UFO cults are conditioning mankind to accept the coming strong delusion of “ancient alien theory.” But that provides us with a preview of the gist of the end time deception that will cause a worldwide apostasy from all called God or worshiped as such (2 Thess. 2:3-4; Dan. 7:25; Rev. 16:13)
When the Dragon’s UFO fleet arrives Adonikam will embrace “scientific atheism.” The “Elohim” will prove they designed the monsters in the fossil record. Then, Evolutionists worldwide will embrace “intelligent design” they formerly ridiculed. God the stumbling block was removed.
All faith in God throughout the earth will be overthrown, the Great Rebellion against all called God or worshiped as such, then begins (2 Th. 2:3-4).
Moreover, every New Age and Pentecostal prophet (Mt. 7:22-23) whose tongue channels a strange spirit, the “other Jesus” (2Cor. 11:4. 1Tim. 4:1. 1Jn. 4:1. 1 Kings 22:22-23. Mt. 7:22-23), will prophesy praise for the “Creators” bringing in the New Age, the “Kingdom of God”. “Scientific Atheism” became the New Religion of the New World Order of the Beast.
It will be like the days of Noah. Spiritism unrestrained, those believing God few in number.
Contradicting the Biblical data, the Catholic Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 declared the nature of angels “spiritual”. Most Protestants follow their unscriptural ruling that angels are spirits in nature.
The clear pronouncement of Holy Scripture that the angels are spirits (pneumata; Matt. 8:16; 12:45. Luke 7:21; 8:2; 11:26. Acts 19:12; 23:8. Eph. 6:12. Heb. 1:14), who do not marry (Matt. 22:30), are immortal (Luke 20:35–36) and invisible (Col. 1:16), may be “legion” in a restricted space (Luke 8:30), and like spirits, have no flesh and bones (Luke 24:39).-Bavinck, H., Bolt, J., Vriend, J. (2004). Reformed Dogmatics: God and Creation (Vol. 2, p. 456). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.
Their error is a hasty generalization fallacy confusing “spirits” with “angels”. Scripture distinguishes them as different (Ac. 23:8-9). The phrase “spirits of demons” distinguishes the demon’s body from its “spirit” within him (Rev. 16:14).
The lying spirit that fools the prophets (1Kings 22:21-22) is unlike the angels who ate and drank with Abraham (Gen. 18:1-8). Or sat under a tree when speaking to Gideon (Judges 6:11-12).
The hapax legomen λειτουργικὰ πνεύματα “ministering spirits” in Hebrews 1:14 is no contradiction of this. That is not a reference to angelic nature, but to their being ministers of the Spirit. Context is discussing their subordination to Christ, not their nature therefore this is synecdoche, the part referring the whole concept of them as quick and a consuming fire in service to God already stated in Heb. 1:7. If these were immaterial spirits, then God wouldn’t have to “make them spirits”, clearly its figurative language (Ps. 104:4. Heb. 1:7).
The unscriptural supposition angels materialize living bodies to be physical in our realm of existence, is tantamount to angels being equal to God in creative powers, given the complexity of the physical form. Only God can make physical bodies alive (Gen. 2:7; Dt. 32:39), the false prophet does so only with divine permission (Rev. 13:15).
[The Meta-Universe consists of two alternate realities, the “complete” (5046 τέλειος teleios) where heavenly beings live, and our realm the “partial” (3313 μέρος meros). If the “complete” occupies the same space as “the partial” the partial vanishes being less substantial (1 Corinthians 13:10). The “complete” is also called the “kingdom of God” in Mark 9:1. At the Mount of Transfiguration the “kingdom of God [was] present with power” (Mk. 9:1). When the two Realms met on the Mount there was a “leaking” of the dimensions of revelation that are lacking in our “Partial”, and the radiant light of Christ was seen (Mark 9:2-3). Moses and Elijah were there physically with Christ (Mark 9:4), which is confirmed by Peter’s wanting to build tents for them (Mark 9:5). When the resurrected Christ appeared to the disciples even though the doors were locked, He did not pass through the walls like a spirit. He simply “stepped into our Matrix” and “stood (2476 ἵστημι histemi) in their midst” (ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον) John 20:19, 26 showing His hands and feet and letting Thomas put his finger in the nail wounds to prove it was His resurrected body (John 20:27).He would be a deceiver if He had materialized a body to do this.
Just as Jesus did not materialize a body to be seen, neither do angels. However, they can remain invisible in our reality with some sort of cloaking technology (2Kings 6:17). Scripture reveals there are portals connecting earthly and heavenly realms. Jacob saw angels walking through a portal on a ladder through the “gate of heaven” (Gen. 28:12, 17). John went through a similar door to enter heaven (Rev. 4:1). John saw the four horses of the apocalypse appear on earth through a heavenly portal (Rev. 6:1-8 TR). The chariots of fire that took Elijah away went through a swirling energy vortex (2 Kings 2:11). Christ and His heavenly army will enter our Matrix through an opening in the sky (Rev. 19:11) perhaps clouds concealed the portal Christ ascended through (Acts. 1:9). Nothing about New Jerusalem coming down from heaven suggests it is not a physical city. The angels are its likely builders (Rev. 21:10-27). Some suppose its impossible to be physical in heaven, but if that were true then Paul would have known he was “out of his body” while in third heaven (1 Cor. 12:2, 4).]
After the Nephilim died physically in the flood (Gen. 7:21-23) Satan’s angels could be found in three separate places. A). Heaven (Rev. 12:7-12). B). The Abyss (Rev. 9:1-3). C). Wandering the earth desperately seeking corporeality by possessing insects (2Kings 1:2), animals (Rev. 18:2) or men (Lk. 8:27-32). Demons still in heaven at the time of the deluge remained corporeal. Demons (Nephilim) on the earth died physically because they were prevented from re-entering heaven (Gen. 7:21-24). Those who defiled the image of God in man having sex with women were cast into the Abyss until the End Time when they will be released for a while (Rev. 9:1-3). Those who hadn’t defiled the image of God in man were permitted to wander the earth and we see many reports of them during Jesus’ ministry (Lk. 4:33-36; 8:27-33; 9:39, 42).
As for the apostate “sons of God” (Gen. 6:2) who are not Satan’s angels, they were judged worthy of a different prison called Tartarus. There they wait for final judgment bound in chains dwelling in darkness (2 Pt. 2:4; Jude 1:7).
As for the hybrid elohim-human children of angels who died in the flood, they were separated into two places. A). Those who were evil wander the earth with demons as subordinate “unclean spirits” (Rev. 18:2). B). Those who were righteous but refused to believe Noah’s preaching God would forgive their “Frankenstein nature”, became a special case and therefore were cast into a special “prison” (5438 φυλακή phulake). Christ made a special trip to preach the gospel to them. These are a like figure to the Church: Christ preaches to them and by giving the answer of a good conscience towards God they are saved prefiguring what would occur in the church when it gives the answer of a good conscience to Christ’s preaching. Evidently Christ relocated them to paradise with the rest of the righteous dead at His resurrection (1Pet. 3:18-22).
If the growth rate in the pre-Flood world was equal to the growth rate in 2000 (0.012), there could have been about 750 million people at the time of the Flood. However, given the extremely long lifespans prior to the Flood, the growth rate could have been much higher. Increasing the rate by just 0.001 would put the population at close to four billion at the Flood.-Answers In Genesis, What Was the Pre-Flood Population Like? January 6, 2016.
A literal translation of Nephilim is “fallen ones.” The full implication of the passive adjectival formation (q aṭīl) can best be brought out by something like “those who were made to fall, those who were cast down.”-Hamilton, V. P. (1990). The Book of Genesis, Chapters 1–17 (p. 270). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Heavenly Lady Zion (Revelation 12:1-4. “Jerusalem…Mother of us all” Gal. 4:26) is pregnant with “her Seed” (Genesis 3:15), Satan cast (906 βάλλω ballo) his angels down to the earth trying to prevent the birth of Christ. This is not to be confused with the End Time war in heaven thousands of years later. Then its Michael and NOT Satan who casts them down (Rev. 12:7-9).
The Mystery Solved: How Angels are cast out of Heaven twice
Gen 6:3 “Then the LORD said,” as in Gen. 6:7 and Gen. 3:22, introduces God’s thoughts to himself.
“My spirit shall not remain in man for ever.” Almost every word in this statement has been the subject of controversy, though there are signs of an emerging consensus among recent commentators.
It is relevant to note first of all the similarity with 3:22, “[lest he] live for ever.” This implies that the divine-human intercourse was, like eating the tree of life, intended to procure eternal life for man. This attempt to usurp what belongs to God alone is therefore condemned. Instead human life is limited to a maximum of 120 years.-Wenham, G. J. (1987). Genesis 1–15 (Vol. 1, p. 141). Dallas: Word, Incorporated.
These are the generations (08435 תּוֹלְדָה towledah) of Noah: Noah was a just (06662 צַדִּיק tsaddiyq) man and perfect (08549 תָּמִים tamiym) in his generations (01755 דּוֹר dowr), and Noah walked with God. (Gen. 6:9 KJV)
Janus Parallelism. This type of parallelism hinges on the use of a single word with two different meanings, one of which forms a parallel with what precedes and the other with what follows. Thus, by virtue of a double entendre, the parallelism faces in both directions. Berlin, A. (1992). Parallelism. In D. N. Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (Vol. 5, p. 157). New York: Doubleday.
This is an asymmetric Janus parallelism on “perfect” (08549 תָּמִים tamiym). Looking back to the “generations” (08435 תּוֹלְדָה towledah) or “descendants of Noah”, the lineage must be “perfect” (08549 תָּמִים tamiym) or “without the blemish” of Nephilim DNA that would prevent the Incarnation of Christ the “woman’s seed”. “Without blemish” is a requirement for sacrificial animals (Exod. 12:5. Lev. 1:3, 10; 3:1, 6 etc.).
Looking forward, Noah is a “just” (06662 צַדִּיק tsaddiyq) “righteous” man “perfect” (08549 תָּמִים tamiym) “faultless in his desire to do God’s will” in his “generations” (01755 דּוֹר dowr) “contemporaries.”
If D. L. Christensen is correct about bs̆gm “Janus Parallelism in Genesis 6:3 Hebrew Studies 27 (1986) 20–24 this would be the second Janus Parallelism in Genesis.
Our LORD did not say angels are sexless in Matthew 22:30, only that the “angels of God in heaven” don’t marry. That begs the question if angels who leave their proper abode in heaven can have sex. Oddly some argue angels are sexless because they are always “male”. However, the opposite is then true because males aren’t sexless. Moreover, the argument overlooked the two female angels in Zechariah 5:9. Also the “night creature” (03917 לִילִית liyliyth) “Lilith”, a female demon (Isa. 34:14)
Satan will cite the genetic corruptions in the fossil record as the proof “Elohim Designers” were on earth before. The “scientific Atheism” Satan taught Claude Vorilhon founder of the UFO cult Raëlism, is a perfect fit for the coming “strong delusion.” Among all the possible causes for a global loss of belief in God, the arrival of atheist Extraterrestrials must rank topmost.
The Powerful Delusion
The Nephilim were on the earth in those days (and also after this) when the sons of God were having sexual relations with the daughters of humankind, who gave birth to their children. They were the mighty heroes of old, the famous men. (Gen. 6:4 NET)
The Nephilim had something to do with the fall of the sons of God, and what they did after. I infer they conspired with man to seduce the “sons of God” with the daughters of men. “And also afterward” when the “sons of God” had intercourse, they did so also. The hybrid human-angel offspring were “men of renown”. While Numbers 13:33 implies Nephilim were giants, what is said of their children may imply they were also “giants in intellect, ability”. Their human offspring built Pumapunku in Bolivia, or Göbekli Tepe in Turkey etc. The theory high tech extraterrestrials would build these stone megaliths isn’t plausible.
War between good and evil. It follows God would send His angelic sons to work against Satan’s Nephilim (Dan. 10:13, 20-21; 12:1. Ps. 104:4. Jude 1:7. Rev. 12:7-9). The 135 BC writer of Jubilees deduced something similar regarding the angelic sons of God:
“For in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth.” (Jubilees. 4:15 OTP)
14 Then an angel came to me and greeted me and said to me, “You, son of man, who art born in righteousness and upon whom righteousness has dwelt, the righteousness of the Antecedent of Time will not forsake you.”
16 Everyone that will come to exist and walk shall (follow) your path, since righteousness never forsakes you. Together with you shall be their dwelling places; and together with you shall be their portion. They shall not be separated from you forever and ever and ever.”-First Book of Enoch 71:14, 16 Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 50). New York; London: Yale University Press.
To a Bible believer, the lies about the authorship are enough proof “its not of the truth” (1 John 2:21). As the angel in effect denies Jesus is the Son of Man the Christ it is a spirit of antichrist. But until the 1980’s when Professor James H. Charlesworth corrected RH Charles’ miss-translation, most didn’t realize “Enoch” claimed the title for himself.
Non-Christians won’t be convinced by such arguments, “ancient alien theorists” believe Enoch was taken up by Extraterrestrials and shown the secrets of the universe. But if that is correct, why did Enoch claim the earth is flat, that he saw the “ends of the earth” (1Enoch 18:6) or that a burning river is in the west where the sun sets (1Enoch 17:4-5). Nor would he report there are seven burning stars at the “end of heaven and earth” (1Enoch 18:13-14), locating those stars in this universe.
It is likely the apostle John had the claims of the Book of Enoch in mind when he wrote John 3:13. It rules out Enoch ascended to heaven and descended to report what he saw. Only Jesus did that. We find a parallel polemic against the book of Enoch in the Talmud:
Such veneration of Enoch would have elicited polemics from other Jews. We find evidence of such polemics in Jewish texts. We have clear textual evidence that Enoch was a threat and there was a need to polemicize against his adoration. Such a denigration of Enoch is preserved in Genesis Rabba…
Probably against such Enoch traditions, the author of the 4G claimed that ‘no one has ascended into heaven except he who descended from heaven, the Son of Man’. The connection with Enoch in this gospel seems assured, since Enoch is hailed as the Son of Man in 1 En. 71 and Jesus announces he is ‘the Son of Man’ in Jn. 9:35–38. This scenario seems possible, perhaps probable, since 1 En. 37–71 is now judged to be Jewish and dated to the late first century BCE by most experts.-Charlesworth, J. H. (2004). Did the Fourth Evangelist Know the Enoch Tradition? In Testimony and interpretation: early Christology in its Judeo-Hellenistic Milieu: studies in honor of Petr Pokorný (pp. 229–230). London; New York: T & T Clark.